[9] Among early literary attempts, he was infatuated with Gretchen, who would later reappear in his Faust and the adventures with whom he would concisely describe in Dichtung und Wahrheit. A perfect man lay in great beauty before me; and the rapture the sight caused me made me forget for a moment that the immortal spirit had left such an abode. On 13 October, Napoleon's army invaded the town. This is not to say that he was emotionalistic or excessive; on the contrary, he lauded personal restraint and felt that excess was a disease: "There is nothing worse than imagination without taste". In acel moment Faust face un pact cu diavolul : diavolul face tot ceea ce ii spune Faust sa faca atat timp cat diavolul este pe pamant, iar in schimb Faust ii spune ca il va servi in iad. Johann Wolfgang von Goethe is perhaps best known for The Sorrows of Young Werther (1774), the first novel of the Sturm und Drang movement, and for Faust (Part I, 1808; Part II, 1832), a play about a man who sells his soul to the Devil that is sometimes considered Germany’s greatest contribution to world literature. Operele sale au rămas la fel de pătrunzătoare ca în tinereţe, dovedind un real talent şi o minte care refuza să îmbătrânească. The Serbian inventor and electrical engineer Nikola Tesla was heavily influenced by Goethe's Faust, his favorite poem, and had actually memorized the entire text. Turner. “Goethe's Criticisms, Reflections, and Maxims” 55 Copy quote. His other compositions inspired by Goethe include the overture Calm Sea and Prosperous Voyage (Op. The barricading of the kitchen and the cellar against the wild pillaging soldiery was her work. Goethe's diaries of this period form the basis of the non-fiction Italian Journey. Title: Johann Wolfgang von Goethe 1 Johann Wolfgang von Goethe. The body lay naked, only wrapped in a white sheet; large pieces of ice had been placed near it, to keep it fresh as long as possible. In late 1792, Goethe took part in the Battle of Valmy against revolutionary France, assisting Duke Karl August of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach during the failed invasion of France. Goethe was, however, the first to systematically study the physiological effects of colour, and his observations on the effect of opposed colours led him to a symmetric arrangement of his colour wheel, "for the colours diametrically opposed to each other ... are those which reciprocally evoke each other in the eye. Mladý Goethe se učil řecky, latinsky, hebrejsky, francouzsky, anglicky, a italsky. Goethes Vater studierte in Leipzig Recht. He also journeyed to Sicily during this time, and wrote intriguingly that "To have seen Italy without having seen Sicily is to not have seen Italy at all, for Sicily is the clue to everything." His Faust, though eminently stageworthy when suitably edited, is also Europe’s greatest long poem since John Milton’s Paradise Lost, if not since Dante’s The Divine Comedy. [102] He emphasized Goethe's "cultural and self-developing individualism", humanism, and cosmopolitanism.[102]. Johann’s mother, Catharina Elisabeth Textor (1731–1808), was a daughter of Frankfurt’s most senior official. [62] According to Nietzsche, Goethe had "a kind of almost joyous and trusting fatalism" that has "faith that only in the totality everything redeems itself and appears good and justified. [44], Goethe's botanical theories were partly based on his gardening in Weimar. Return to Weimar and the French Revolution (1788–94), https://www.britannica.com/biography/Johann-Wolfgang-von-Goethe, Poetry Foundation - Biography of Johann Wolfgang Von Goethe, Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy - Biography of Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, The University of Adelaide - Biography of Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, AllMusic - Biography of Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Academy of American Poets - Biography of Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Theatre Database - Biography of Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe - Student Encyclopedia (Ages 11 and up). He would argue that Classicism was the means of controlling art, and that Romanticism was a sickness, even as he penned poetry rich in memorable images, and rewrote the formal rules of German poetry. Jeho slova, která pronesl po návratu z koaličních válek proti francouzské koaliční armádě, se stala památná. Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, W. B. Rönnfeldt (1898*). Author of. 1749 ve Frankfurtu nad Mohanem. Goethe's preoccupation with and reverence for Spinoza are well known and documented in the history of Western thought. Goetha přitahovala anglická literatura, zejména dílo Shakespearovo, které mu zosobňovalo ideál tvůrčí svobody. 1685 zog er nach Frankfurt am Main und unterhielt hier eine florierende Schneiderei. If I tire of her as a girl, she'll play the boy for me as well". Goethe's secretary Riemer reports: 'Although already undressed and wearing only his wide nightgown... he descended the stairs towards them and inquired what they wanted from him.... His dignified figure, commanding respect, and his spiritual mien seemed to impress even them.' In old age, he explained why this was so to Eckermann: How could I write songs of hatred when I felt no hate? [42][43] As one of the many precursors in the history of evolutionary thought, Goethe wrote in Story of My Botanical Studies (1831): The ever-changing display of plant forms, which I have followed for so many years, awakens increasingly within me the notion: The plant forms which surround us were not all created at some given point in time and then locked into the given form, they have been given... a felicitous mobility and plasticity that allows them to grow and adapt themselves to many different conditions in many different places. Goethe studied law at Leipzig University from 1765 to 1768. Johann Wolfgang von Goethe Johann Wolfgang von Goethe einer der berühmtesten deutschen Dichter wurde am 28. [38] He wrote several works on morphology, and colour theory. [31], The most important of Goethe's works produced before he went to Weimar were Götz von Berlichingen (1773), a tragedy that was the first work to bring him recognition, and the novel The Sorrows of Young Werther (German: Die Leiden des jungen Werthers) (1774), which gained him enormous fame as a writer in the Sturm und Drang period which marked the early phase of Romanticism. At the end of August 1771, Goethe acquired the academic degree of the Lizenziat (Licentia docendi) in Frankfurt and established a small legal practice. [83] Goethe sympathized with the American Revolution and later wrote a poem in which he declared "America, you're better off than our continent, the old. Externally, some parts may seem useless because the inner coherence of the animal nature has given them this form without regard to outer circumstance. "[107][108] Goethe's Naturanschauer is in many ways a sequel to Diderot's interprète de la nature. Rüdiger Bernhardt lehrte neuere und neueste deutsche sowie skandinavische Literatur an Universitäten des In- und Auslandes. Goethe's words inspired a number of compositions by, among others, Mozart, Beethoven (who idolised Goethe),[37] Schubert, Berlioz and Wolf. Johann Wolfgang Goethe, înnobilat în anul 1782 (n. 28 august 1749, Frankfurt am Main – d. 22 martie 1832, Weimar) a fost un poet german, ilustru gânditor și om de știință, una dintre cele mai de seamă personalități ale culturii universale. "[56] On another occasion he wrote: "I like boys a lot, but the girls are even nicer. No other landscape has he described as affectionately as the warm, wide Rhine area. Although Goethe's great passion was drawing, he quickly became interested in literature; Friedrich Gottlieb Klopstock and Homer were among his early favorites. During this period Goethe published his second novel, Wilhelm Meister's Apprenticeship; the verse epic Hermann and Dorothea, and, in 1808, the first part of his most celebrated drama, Faust. The next work, his epic closet drama Faust, was completed in stages. ... Johann Wolfgang von Goethe: Der Zauberlehrling - … By 1820, Goethe was on amiable terms with Kaspar Maria von Sternberg. His works include: four novels; epic and lyric poetry; prose and verse dramas; memoirs; an autobiography; literary and aesthetic criticism; and treatises on botany, anatomy, and colour. Schopenhauer cited Goethe's novel Wilhelm Meister's Apprenticeship as one of the four greatest novels ever written, along with Tristram Shandy, La Nouvelle Héloïse and Don Quixote. In Strasbourg, Goethe met Johann Gottfried Herder. In 1770, he anonymously released Annette, his first collection of poems. Beethoven declared that a "Faust" Symphony would be the greatest thing for art. [72] Like Lessing and Herder, in many respects, Goethe was a devoted Spinozist. In the last period, between Schiller's death, in 1805, and his own, appeared Faust Part One, Elective Affinities, the West-Eastern Diwan (a collection of poems in the Persian style, influenced by the work of Hafez), his autobiographical Aus meinem Leben: Dichtung und Wahrheit (From My Life: Poetry and Truth) which covers his early life and ends with his departure for Weimar, his Italian Journey, and a series of treatises on art. 8. [94][95] Goethe came away from the meeting deeply impressed with Napoleon's enlightened intellect and his efforts to build an alternative to the corrupt old regime. "[93] The two discussed politics, the writings of Voltaire, and Goethe's Sorrows of Young Werther, which Napoleon had read seven times and ranked among his favorites. He was opposed to the church ceremony that was, at the time, the only way of being legally married, so, although she bore Goethe a son, August, in 1789, he didn’t marry her until the Napoleonic army sacked the city in which they lived. It was Christiane who commanded and organized the defense of the house on the Frauenplan. His uncritical admiration for many contemporary poets vanished as he became interested in Gotthold Ephraim Lessing and Christoph Martin Wieland. In the drawing academy run by Adam Friedrich Oeser—friend and teacher of the art historian Johann Winckelmann, then living in Rome—Goethe indirectly became one of Winckelmann’s disciples. In April 1770, Goethe left Frankfurt in order to finish his studies at the University of Strasbourg. [107], Thinkers such as Ralph Waldo Emerson would take up many similar ideas in the 1800s. 1749 ve Frankfurtu nad Mohanem. Freddie Ireland; 2 Life. With these I must come to terms when I have long wandered alone; they may call me right and wrong; to them will I listen when in the process they call each other right and wrong."[92]. Goethe also received lessons in dancing, riding and fencing. "[49] In this, he anticipated Ewald Hering's opponent colour theory (1872).[50]. Karl Robert Mandelkow, Bodo Morawe: Goethes Briefe. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. All its parts have a direct effect on one another, a relationship to one another, thereby constantly renewing the circle of life; thus we are justified in considering every animal physiologically perfect. [109], See Johann Wolfgang von Goethe bibliography, "Goethe" and "Göte" redirect here. But there exists a level at which it wholly disappears, and where one stands, so to speak, above the nations, and feels the weal or woe of a neighboring people as though it were one's own. Nachher bekommt ihr einige Fragen zum Gesagtem. 1999 wurde er in die Leibniz-Sozietät gewählt. [35] Epistolary novels were common during this time, letter-writing being a primary mode of communication. [5] Nietzsche wrote, "Four pairs it was that did not deny themselves to my sacrifice: Epicurus and Montaigne, Goethe and Spinoza, Plato and Rousseau, Pascal and Schopenhauer. The Lover’s Caprice), begun in 1767. Carlyles weg zu Goethe. Goethe took revenge by starting his first mature play, Die Mitschuldigen (1787; “Partners in Guilt”), a verse comedy showing a woman’s regrets after a year of marriage to the wrong man. In any case this business of hatred between nations is a curious thing. During convalescence, Goethe was nursed by his mother and sister. Johann Wolfgang von Goethe > German poet, novelist, playwright, courtier, and natural philosopher, one of the greatest figures in Western literature. He claims to deduce from it that the barometric level varies in the same proportion not only in each zone but that it has the same variation, too, at different altitudes above sea-level". "[101], It was to a considerable degree due to Goethe's reputation that the city of Weimar was chosen in 1919 as the venue for the national assembly, convened to draft a new constitution for what would become known as Germany's Weimar Republic. His writings were immediately influential in literary and artistic circles. Goethe was petrified, Christiane raised a lot of noise and even tangled with them, other people who had taken refuge in Goethe's house rushed in, and so the marauders eventually withdrew again. During the course of his trip Goethe met and befriended the artists Angelica Kauffman and Johann Heinrich Wilhelm Tischbein, as well as encountering such notable characters as Lady Hamilton and Alessandro Cagliostro (see Affair of the Diamond Necklace). The Frankfurt in which he was born and in which his social attitudes were formed was, as it is now, a wealthy commercial and financial centre, but it was also virtually a self-governing republic, a city-state within the Holy Roman Empire. said Zelter. [57], Goethe was a freethinker who believed that one could be inwardly Christian without following any of the Christian churches, many of whose central teachings he firmly opposed, sharply distinguishing between Christ and the tenets of Christian theology, and criticizing its history as a "hodgepodge of fallacy and violence". 'Goethe: The Man and His Character'. As his studies did not progress, Goethe was forced to return to Frankfurt at the close of August 1768. Goethe praised Francis Bacon for his advocacy of science based on experiment and his forceful revolution in thought as one of the greatest strides forward in modern science. In a couple of weeks the biography was reworked into a colourful drama. [54], Many of Goethe's works, especially Faust, the Roman Elegies, and the Venetian Epigrams, depict erotic passions and acts. In 1823, having recovered from a near fatal heart illness, the 74-year-old Goethe fell in love with the teenaged Ulrike von Levetzow whom he wanted to marry, but because of the opposition of her mother he never proposed. Johann Wolfgang von Goethe se narodil v dobře situované a vážené rodině ve Frankfurtu n. M. Studoval v Lipsku a Strasbourgu, kde se potkal s J. G. Hezdrem, filozofem, spisovatelem, literárním vědcem, s nímž stál u zrodu hnutí Sturm und Drang (Bouře a vzdor). The restaurant Auerbachs Keller and its legend of Faust's 1525 barrel ride impressed him so much that Auerbachs Keller became the only real place in his closet drama Faust Part One. [82] At the time of the French Revolution, he thought the enthusiasm of the students and professors to be a perversion of their energy and remained skeptical of the ability of the masses to govern. [78] August Wilhelm Schlegel considered Goethe "a heathen who converted to Islam. Perhaps the single most influential piece is "Mignon's Song" which opens with one of the most famous lines in German poetry, an allusion to Italy: "Kennst du das Land, wo die Zitronen blühn?" He is considered the greatest German literary figure of the modern era. Er war Schneider von Beruf und arbeitete mehrere Jahre in Frankreich. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. Stretched upon his back, he reposed as if asleep; profound peace and security reigned in the features of his sublimely noble countenance. He was an early participant in the Sturm und Drang literary movement. The university there had been the centre of Germany’s literary revival over the previous 40 years. Goethe became severely ill in Frankfurt. 12, p. 121; trans. His faithful servant, Frederick, opened for me the chamber in which he was laid out. Seine Eltern Johann Caspar Goethe und Catharina Elisabeth Goethe, welche eine geborene Textor war, stammten beide aus gutem Hause, seine Mutter entstammte sogar einer alten Patrizierfamilie. The mighty brow seemed yet to harbour thoughts. [30] He is buried in the Ducal Vault at Weimar's Historical Cemetery. His works include: four novels; epic and lyric poetry; prose and verse dramas; memoirs; an autobiography; literary and aesthetic criticism; and treatises on botany, anatomy, and colour. Christiane von Goethe died in 1816. Goethe was vehemently opposed to Newton's analytic treatment of colour, engaging instead in compiling a comprehensive rational description of a wide variety of colour phenomena. At the same time, though, he seriously studied alchemy and may already have formed the idea of writing a play about Faust, a half-legendary figure who sells his soul to the Devil for knowledge and power and who became the subject of Goethe’s greatest work. Goethe also had the largest private collection of minerals in all of Europe. Arnold Bergsträsser, "Goethe's View of Christ", Gálik, Marián (1975), "Two Modern Chinese Philosophers on Spinoza (Some Remarks on Sino-German Spinoza's '. (82 évesen) Weimar: Sírhely: Weimarer Fürstengruft: Nemzetiség: német: Szülei: Johann Caspar Goethe és Catharina Elisabeth Textor: Házastársa : Christiane Vulpius: Gyermekei: August von Goethe: P Known to most reader as a peerless lyric poet and the author of such masterpieces as Faust and The Sorrows… Read Full Biography. During the year and a half that followed, because of several relapses, the relationship with his father worsened. Frederick drew aside the sheet, and I was astonished at the divine magnificence of the limbs. In: Grove's Dictionary of Music and Musicians, 5th ed., 1954, 'Goethe's Message of Beauty in Our Twentieth Century World', (Friedrich). "[63], Born into a Lutheran family, Goethe's early faith was shaken by news of such events as the 1755 Lisbon earthquake and the Seven Years' War. Goethe admitted that he "shot his hero to save himself": a reference to Goethe's own near-suicidal obsession with a young woman during this period, an obsession he quelled through the writing process. Mit dem Erbe konnte sich Goethes Vater, Johann Caspar Goethe, bereits im Alter von 32 Jahren zur Ruhe setzen und seinen Interessen nachgehen. Sein Vater, Johann Caspar Goethe (1710-1782) war Jurist, lebte aber von seinem Vermögen, so dass er nicht zu Arbeiten hatte. [51] In the Kurschner edition of Goethe's works, the science editor, Rudolf Steiner, presents Goethe's approach to science as phenomenological. [73][74] He was also a pantheist, like some other prominent Spinozists such as Flaubert and Albert Einstein. Der »Dichterfürst« war zudem Staatsmann und beeinflusste die Kunst seiner Zeit. In it, he contentiously characterized colour as arising from the dynamic interplay of light and darkness through the mediation of a turbid medium. Die Romantik BIOGRAFIE Der Erlkönig Notiere mit! 60, 1832).[29]. "[27], Mendelssohn was invited to meet Goethe on several later occasions,[28] and set a number of Goethe's poems to music. (1749 – 1832) Johann Wolfgang von Goethe se narodil 28. The first production of Richard Wagner's opera Lohengrin took place in Weimar in 1850. Goethe's father, a lawyer, prioritized his son's education, enabling him to engage in many literary and cultural pursuits. While in Southern Italy and Sicily, Goethe encountered, for the first time genuine Greek (as opposed to Roman) architecture, and was quite startled by its relative simplicity. "[24], After 1793, Goethe devoted his endeavours primarily to literature. Pronesl: „Zde a dnes začíná nová epocha světových dějin a můžeme říct, že jsme byli účastni při jejich zrození“. Faust became the ur-myth of many figures in the 19th century. [99], In Victorian England, Goethe exerted a profound influence on George Eliot, whose partner George Henry Lewes wrote a Life of Goethe. Preview referat: Faust de Johann Wolfgang von Goethe . Eckermann closes his famous work, Conversations with Goethe, with this passage: The morning after Goethe's death, a deep desire seized me to look once again upon his earthly garment. [97], Germaine de Staël, in De l'Allemagne (1813), presented German Classicism and Romanticism as a potential source of spiritual authority for Europe, and identified Goethe as a living classic. Johann Wolfgang von Goethe formally married Christiane Vulpius in October 1806. [32][citation needed], Goethe was fascinated by Kalidasa's Abhijñānaśākuntalam, which was one of the first works of Sanskrit literature that became known in Europe, after being translated from English to German.[33]. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). Updates? In Leipzig, Goethe fell in love with Anna Katharina Schönkopf and wrote cheerful verses about her in the Rococo genre. [106], Goethe's scientific and aesthetic ideas have much in common with Denis Diderot, whose work he translated and studied. Johann Wolfgang von Goethe Biography by Zoran Minderovic + Follow Artist. [39] Goethe's studies (notably with an elephant's skull lent to him by Samuel Thomas von Soemmerring) led him to independently discover the human intermaxillary bone, also known as "Goethe's bone", in 1784, which Broussonet (1779) and Vicq d'Azyr (1780) had (using different methods) identified several years earlier. [8], Goethe also became acquainted with Frankfurt actors. [6] Johann Caspar married Goethe's mother, Catharina Elizabeth Textor at Frankfurt on 20 August 1748, when he was 38 and she was 17. Goethe was educated with his sister at home by tutors until he was 16. His written account of these events can be found within his Complete Works. During his first ten years in Weimar, Goethe became a member of the Duke's privy council, sat on the war and highway commissions, oversaw the reopening of silver mines in nearby Ilmenau, and implemented a series of administrative reforms at the University of Jena. The luck was Goethe's, the steadfastness was displayed by Christiane. Born 1749 Frankfurt, Germany ; Studied Law at Liepzig University ; Germanys leading man of poetry, drama, science, theology and humanism in late C18th and early C19th ; Married in 1806 ; Died 1832 Weimar, Duchy of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach ; 3 Most famous for Faust. [55], In a conversation on April 7, 1830 Goethe stated that pederasty is an "aberration" that easily leads to "animal, roughly material" behavior. Goethe's poetic work served as a model for an entire movement in German poetry termed Innerlichkeit ("introversion") and represented by, for example, Heine. Goethe was the eldest of seven children, though only one other survived into adulthood, his sister Cornelia (1750–77). For instance, in Faust, the first use of Faust's power after signing a contract with the devil is to seduce a teenage girl. They had already had several children together by this time, including their son, Julius August Walter von Goethe (1789–1830), whose wife, Ottilie von Pogwisch (1796–1872), cared for the elder Goethe until his death in 1832. V letech 1765 – 1768 studoval práva v Lipsku, ale ze zdravotních důvodů musel studium ukončit. Johann Wolfgang Goethe wurde am 28. For other uses, see, 18th/19th-century German writer, artist, and politician, In 1998, both of these sites, together with nine others, were designated a, Catharina was the daughter of Johann Wolfgang Textor, sheriff (. Goethe outlines his method in the essay The experiment as mediator between subject and object (1772). Dieses Vermögen ermöglichte auch seinem Sohn ein Leben ohne finanzielle Schwierigkeiten. [90], Goethe had a great effect on the nineteenth century. phil. [7] All their children, with the exception of Johann Wolfgang and his sister, Cornelia Friederica Christiana, who was born in 1750, died at early ages. On 14 October 1772 Goethe held a gathering in his parental home in honour of the first German "Shakespeare Day". Later, a facet of its plot, i.e., of selling one's soul to the devil for power over the physical world, took on increasing literary importance and became a view of the victory of technology and of industrialism, along with its dubious human expenses. [108], His views make him, along with Adam Smith, Thomas Jefferson, and Ludwig van Beethoven, a figure in two worlds: on the one hand, devoted to the sense of taste, order, and finely crafted detail, which is the hallmark of the artistic sense of the Age of Reason and the neo-classical period of architecture; on the other, seeking a personal, intuitive, and personalized form of expression and society, firmly supporting the idea of self-regulating and organic systems. The German philosopher Arthur Schopenhauer named Wilhelm Meister's Apprenticeship one of the four greatest novels ever written,[5][c] while the American philosopher and essayist Ralph Waldo Emerson selected Goethe as one of six "representative men" in his work of the same name (along with Plato, Emanuel Swedenborg, Montaigne, Napoleon, and Shakespeare). Das „von“ erhält er, als er 1782 geadelt wird. In the literary culture of the German-speaking countries, he has had so dominant a position that, since the end of the 18th century, his writings have been described as “classical.” In a European perspective he appears as the central and unsurpassed representative of the Romantic movement, broadly understood. In 1794, Friedrich Schiller wrote to Goethe offering friendship; they had previously had only a mutually wary relationship ever since first becoming acquainted in 1788. For Goethe, his first ten years at Weimar could well be described as a garnering of a degree and range of experience which perhaps could be achieved in no other way. Douglas Miller, Karl August, Duke of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach, "Goethe und Carl August – Freundschaft und Politik", "The auto-biography of Goethe.